Anyone know if there is a list or have any insight as to whether this is a thing in other countries?
In the US Navy it seems Enterprise is on the list, but as far as I know that is unofficial. The USS Constitution is another I suppose, but only as a side effect.
Well, the Enterprise name actually comes from the 70 ton sloop captured from the British in 1775. After that there were eight ships with that name. There is currently a ninth ship, a Gerald Ford class carrier which will be commissioned in 2028. The Constitution is still in the fleet officially, the Arizona is still in the fleet. HMS Victory is still officially in the Royal Navy. I don't know of any real list. Here is a site with PDF's with all ships since around 1910.